한국 불교 진언과 대순진리회 주문의 비교 연구
Received: Aug 31, 2013 ; Accepted: Mar 09, 2014
Published Online: Jun 01, 2017
In this paper, I want to compare the mantra of Korean Buddhism with the jumun(呪文) of Daesoonjinrihoe in rites and cultivation. Regarding the mantra of Buddhism there are some researches, but there are few studies with regard to the jumun of Daesoonjinrihoe. The mantra of Buddhism and jumun of Daesoonjinrihoe look similar in pronouncing Hangul characters, but the religious and historical context around these seems to be different.
The mantra of Korean Buddhism is associated with the introduction and diffusion process of esoteric Buddhism. In the early period of Buddhism some mantras were allowed by Buddha and the mantras were certified as a educational teaching in the period of Early Buddhist schools. In Mahayana school, the dharani that was abstracted from the vast Mahayana scriptures was developed. As Mahayana Buddhism develops, esoteric Buddhism was born in India. Esoteric Buddhism was introduced into China and was imported into Korea in Silla dynasty. In Koryo dynasty various rituals of esoteric Buddhism flourished and Jineunjong(眞言宗) and Chongjijong(總持宗) school were formed. In Chosun dynasty Buddhism was suppressed by government and the esoteric school was discontinued. But in rituals and cultivation the mantra and dharani were flourished in the latter part of Chosun dynasty. In modern period several esoteric schools were formed and developed. In present context the mantra was recited by many people in Korea. Main mantras are 'Om mani padme hum', 'Dharani of Avalokitesvara(神妙章句大陀羅尼)', 'neungumju(楞嚴呪)', 'Gwangmyung mantra(光明眞言) etc.
The jumun of Daesoonjinrihoe was started by Kang Jeungsan(姜甑山) who was believed to be a God by Daesoonjinrihoe believers. Jeungsan used several existed mantras in creating new heaven and earth and made new jumuns by himself and taught them to his followers. Cho Jungsan(趙鼎山) who succeeded to the doctrines has received the jumuns by Jeungsan. He selected the jumuns to recite and determined the method how to spell these. Park Hankyung(朴漢慶) who opened Daesoonjinrihoe succeeded the rituals and doctrines. Every day ritual of Daesoonjinrihoe is chanting the jumun and the cultivation and gongbu(工夫) is practiced through jumun. Important jumuns of Daesoonjinrihoe are Taeulju(太乙呪) and Kidoju(祈禱呪).
In the aspects of ritual, the mantra of Buddhism and the jumun of Daesoonjinrihoe perform a similar function. The mantra of Buddhism has the context of the doctrines of Buddhism and the method of Buddhistic practicing but the jumun of Daesoonjinrihoe is related to Jeungsan's teaching and the doctrines of Daesoonjinrihoe. But it is same that the mantra and jumun are used in communicating or uniting with ultimate reality. So the mantra and jumun are important vehicles for homo religius to meet the sacred and unite with the sacred and is regarded as the sacred word by the faithful which has a lot of symbols and meanings.