강증산(姜甑山)의 중국신화 수용과 그 의미
Received: May 31, 2015; Accepted: Oct 06, 2015
Published Online: Jun 01, 2017
This paper took Jeonkyeong(典經) of Daesunjinrihoe(大巡眞理會) as the basic text and studied how Kangjeungsan(姜甑山), the Sangje(上帝), had embraced Chinese myth in process of formation of his religious thought focusing on Yan Emperor(炎帝) Shennong(神農) myth and Shanrangang(禪讓) myth (namely Danchu myth).
First when we examine the myth surrounding Kangjeungsan’s birth, it deeply emraced a feeling-birth myth(感生神話), we could realize that this is a universe motif through myth of hero birth in East Asia. Further judging from the analysis of geographic space of Kangjeungsan’s activity, it included a variety of mythical and Daoist related place names. I think this is because of the fact that birth place of Kangjeungsan and the surrounding area is the locality of Xian(仙) tradition where major characters of Danhak sect(丹學派) have been turned out, and that Korean way of Xian suppressed by the regulatory system has been widely rooted in the public. Especially it’s interesting that Jeungsan, the pen name of Kangjeungsan, ambiguously connotes Siru mountain(甑山), a place of his training, and the spiritual realm of the 『Zhouyicantongqi(周易參同契)』.
Then I examined the God of fire Shennong myth which has been actively admitted and embraced by Kangjeungsan. Kangjeungsan put the root of his pedigree on Shennong and there is a close affinity between Shennong and Dongyi(東夷) such as Buyeo(夫餘), Goguryeo(高句麗), etc. These Dongyi spirits are losers against the Chinese major myth and beings of ressentiment. At the same time the predecessor of Jiutianyingyuanleishengpuhuatianzun(九天應元雷聲普化天尊) who shares mythical characteristics with the God of fire Shennong was a formerly Taishi(太師) Wenzhong(聞仲) of Yin(殷) dynasty. He was defeated and died by Zhou(周) dynasty, and was deified. The fact that Kangjeungsan regarded himself as a descendent of Shennong and possessed divinity of Jiutianyingyuanleishengpuhuatianzun connotes that he represents all beings of ressentiment such as family of Yin and Dongyi. However, Kangjeungsan set a religious milestone by turning revenge for such ressentiment at tribe level into religious sublimation.
At the end Shanrang myth which has been critically embraced by Kangjeungsan was reviewed. According to the existing Shanrang myth, Danchu(丹朱) was unworthy and not succeeded in the succession to the throne. Then good natured Emperor Shun(舜) succeeded to the throne from Emperor Yao(堯). However, the reality of Shanrang myth was a violent change of sovereign power and Danchu was a victim in the process of such violent change. Kangjeungsan shrewdly grasped the reality of ancient China and cast light on presence of Danchu. And he emphasized the need of religious sublimation of revenge, Haewon(解冤). His such awareness of culture had a close relation with revisionist standpoint of independent Danhak sect expressing a skeptical glance at systematic, commensurate and authentic historical view of Chinese civilization. And further Kangjeungsan cosmologically and causationally reinterpreted revenge of Danchu. He established a universal salvation theology which has a corresponsive connotation in regard to embracement of Shennong myth.
In conclusion, embracement of Chinese myth by Kangjeungsan was a creative work of reinterpretation resulting in an inherent religious connotation through a process of appropriation, that is independent and selective introjection.